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What Are Tonsil Stones? | Gross Science
 
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If you’ve got white lumps in your throat, they could be tonsil stones or “tonsilloliths.” (They're super gross, and really common.) Subscribe to Gross Science! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ NYTimes on tonsil stones: http://nyti.ms/1fK3keK Dr. Christopher Chang on tonsil stones: http://bit.ly/1fK3dzZ Study of CT scans: http://bit.ly/1fK3cw0 -- Host, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Illustrator, DP, Sound Rachel Becker Additional Invaluable Research Rachel Becker Many thanks to Dr. Chris Chang. Jaunty Walk A Music Provided by APM Gross Images and Videos 1 big hidden tonsil stone (march 2015) Courtesy ihatemytonsils youtube.com/watch?v=X5233YBPn_g Swollen tonsils Flickr/John Campbell Tonsillolith in mouth Wikimedia Commons/Glacko2021 Tonsil stone on finger Flickr/Kaija The removed tonsils of our patient © 2008 Katotomichelakis et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. http://www.jmedicalcasereports.com/content/2/1/243 Gross SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Gross Science is produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 6195946 Gross Science
The Strangest Use For Bacon… Ever?
 
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Everyone loves bacon. Even parasitic botflies living under your skin. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Botfly biology resources: http://bit.ly/1Lb7Boz http://1.usa.gov/1Lb7CJ1 Smithsonian round-up article on bacon therapy: http://bit.ly/1Lb7cCD JAMA article on bacon therapy: http://bit.ly/1Lb7wkA Credits Host, Illustrator, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Writer, Illustrator Rachel Becker DP, Sound Elizabeth Gillis Many thanks to Norm Woodley and Darvin Scott Smith. Celestine A Music Provided by APM Images Botfly Larva ©Paul Bertner Botfly in Skin The New England Journal of Medicine ©2005 SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Wink Freesound/Bennychico11 Flying Mosquito Freesound/zywx Spinning Cable Freesound/jarredgibb Screen Door Opening and Closing Freesound/snardin42 Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 322373 Gross Science
Sea Cucumbers Have Multipurpose Butts
 
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Meet the most versatile butts in the animal kingdom. Subscribe to Gross Science! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ (Primary Literature) The anus as a second mouth: anal suspension feeding by an oral deposit-feeding sea cucumber: http://bit.ly/2ibnzXa (Primary Literature) Mechanisms involved in pearlfish resistance to holothuroid toxins: http://bit.ly/2ibg4z8 (Primary Literature) When a repellent becomes an attractant: harmful saponins are kairomones attracting the symbiotic Harlequin crab: http://go.nature.com/2ibltGv -- Host, Writer, Editor, Animator Anna Rothschild Camera, Sound Zachary Hoffman Welcome to the Circus a Music Provided by APM Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017 GROSS FOOTAGE AND IMAGES Images of Sea Cucumber Butts By Klaus M. Stiefel Graceful pearlfish (Encheliophis gracilis) living inside sea cucumber (Bohadschia argus) on reef, West Papua, Indonesia Getty Images/BBC Natural History A common, large sea cucumber (Bohadschia argus) is easy to identify due to its distinctive pattern. This species can extrude sticky defensive threads called cuverian tubules. Shutterstock/Ethan Daniels Cloaque Femelle Wikimedia Commons/Au Domaine des 3 Coqs Swimming Crab - Lissocarcinus Orbicularis on Sea Cucumber Wikimedia Commons/Prilfish Lissocarcinus orbicularis LandaaGiraavaru Wikimedia Commons/MDC Seamarc Pseudocolochirus axiologus Wikimedia Commons/Marrabbio2 Pearsonothuria graeffei bouche Wikimedia Commons/Frédéric Ducarme GROSS SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Gross Science is produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 126301 Gross Science
Death of the Dragon Worms
 
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Guinea worms are three-foot-long worms that mate in your abdomen and squirt larvae out of a hole in your foot. Luckily, they're almost extinct. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ The Carter Center's Guinea Worm Eradication Program http://www.cartercenter.org/health/guinea_worm/index.html Life cycle, socioeconomic impact, and eradication initiative http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC118073/ Credits: Host, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Writer Eleanor Nelsen DP, Sound, Intern Extraordinaire Kristen Clark Images of Worm Extractions and Water Filtration ©The Carter Center http://www.cartercenter.org/index.html Dragon Chaney Trotter http://chaneytrotter.com/ Star of Life Wikimedia Commons/EMS Music: Cool As A Cucumber Audio Network SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Swishes Freesound/Pogotron Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 199039 Gross Science
Plants Use An Internet Made of Fungus
 
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It's called the "Wood Wide Web." Subscribe to Gross Science! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ Pathways for below-ground carbon transfer between paper birch and Douglas-fir seedlings: http://bit.ly/2kocFzg Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks: http://go.nature.com/2ko1iaS Suzanne Simard’s TED Talk: http://bit.ly/2kodnMW -- Host, Producer, Editor, Animator Anna Rothschild Writer, Researcher Eliza Lehner Camera, Sound Rachel Aviles Special thanks to Dr. Suzanne Simard. GROSS FOOTAGE AND STILLS Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017 Forest waterfall Pond5/ownway POV Looking up through the trees Pond5/Beachfrontprod In forest Pond5/Rozum Blueberry Bush Pond5/capecodvideos fern, forest flower Pond5/leont Time-lapse of growing fly agaric mushroom, RGB + ALPHA matte (720p) Pond5/zygistudio GROSS SFX Jelly Mangling On Plate Freesound/lolamadeus Jelly Wobbling On Plate 1 Freesound/lolamadeus Leaves Freesound/dsoadigital Ice Styrofoam Crackling Foley Freesound/td6d Machine Sucking and Expelling Air Freesound/rob3rt Basket Creak Freesound/sheepfilms SFX Gross Guts Slime Goo Freesound/perel Leather2 Freesound/everheat Tape Pulling Off Surface Freesound/baryy Poof of Smoke Freesound/planman Gross Science is produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 125893 Gross Science
What Can Herpes Do To Your Brain?
 
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Follow me to BrainCraft with Vanessa! http://bit.ly/1KoXcSA Herpes is probably hiding in your nerve cells right now. Subscribe to Gross Science! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ For more on herpes and the brain (and lots of other stories): Kean, S. (2014). The Tale of the Dueling Neurosurgeons. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company. Info on the Shingles Vaccine: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/shingles/ No place to hide for herpes virus (New Scientist): http://bit.ly/1Ray7iq Credits: Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound, Researcher, Intern Extraordinaire Elizabeth Gillis Many thanks to Dr. Bryan Cullen. Lucky Charms Music Provided by APM Gross Images Dermatomes and cutaneous nerves – posterior Wikimedia Commons/Mikael Häggström Herpes labialis – opryszczka wargowa Wikimedia Commons/Jojo Herpes zoster chest Wikimedia Commons/Fisle Herpesviridae EM PHIL 2171 lores Wikimedia Common/CDC Main symptoms of Infectious mononucleosis Wikimedia Commons/ Mikael Häggström Windpocken Wikimedia Commons/Thomas Netsch Gross SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S snoring long Freesound/pencilgame1 Jacob’s Ladder/Jacobs ladder 007 Wikimedia Common/DJ Chronos Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Swishes Freesound/pogotron Real?_world_recordings/lake ducks squawking at night Freesound/Tomlija Oink Freesound/payattention Bubbling Popping Freesound/Ch0cchi Gross Science is produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 737057 Gross Science
Why Don’t These Cicadas Have Butts?
 
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The fungus Massospora cicadina infects periodical cicadas when they emerge every 13 or 17 years. Why Are Cicadas So Good At Math? Check out Joe's video over at It's Okay To Be Smart! http://youtu.be/ivQaJwFRowc Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr!http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Angie Macias's “Flying Salt Shakers of Death” article, from the Cornell Mushroom Blog: https://blog.mycology.cornell.edu/2013/02/19/flying-salt-shakers-of-death/ Massosspora cicadina as a cicaca STD, from University of Maryland College Park Professor Michael Raupp: http://bugoftheweek.com/blog/2013/6/17/std-in-cicada-land-imagicicadai-and-imassospora-cicadinai An excellent review of all thing periodical cicada, fungal details on page 279: http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/projects/cicada/resources/reprints/Williams%26Simon_1995.pdf For more on the fungus and its spores, see this study from Dr. Kimberly Smith’s lab (sorry, it’s behind a paywall) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002220110200040X, and this one (also behind a paywall) by JoAnn White and Monte Lloyd: http://ee.oxfordjournals.org/content/12/4/1245 And here are some details about how these insects die: http://cavern.uark.edu/~fstephen/new/Publications/articles/1993Williams.pdf -- Host, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Writer, DP, Sound Rachel Becker Many thanks to: Dr. Chris Simon (http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/projects/cicada/simon_lab/simonlab.php ) Dr. Michael J. Raupp (http://bugoftheweek.com/thebugguy/) Dr. Kimberly G. Smith (http://biology.uark.edu/1403.php) Rag Tag Rag Music Provided by APM Images and Video Cicada photographs and footage Michael J. Raupp, Professor at University of Maryland College Park via bugoftheweek.com/ Magicicada young Wikimedia Commons/Arthur D. Guilani SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S A Magicicada chorus containing M. septendecim, M. cassini, and M. septendecula. Wikimedia Commons/Audio S4 from Fontaine K, Cooley J, Simon C (2007). “Evidence for Paternal Leakage in Hybrid Periodical Cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.)” PLoS ONE. Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 207207 Gross Science
What Really Causes Sunburns?
 
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The way the sun damages your skin is weirder than you ever thought. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Nature: Sunlight Damages DNA in the Dark http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/518459b.html The Protective Role of Melanin Against UV Damage in Human Skin http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2671032/ -- Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Videography Sara Tewksbury and Anna Rothschild Production Help Sara Tewksbury Special Thanks to Dr. Douglas Brash and Dr. Barbara Gilchrest FOOTAGE AND IMAGES Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation Sunburn Wikimedia Commons/Wikioogle=world Take Over Trees and Sunshine Wikimedia Commons/Richs5812 Hands of Love Wikimedia Commons/Mr-yuyu Tan lines on a human female chest Wikimedia Commons/Evil Erin Sunburn (131417495) Wikimedia Commons/Kelly Sue DeConnick Sunburnt Back (3) Wikimedia Commons/Pavel Ševela Malignant melanoma on chest Wikimedia Commons/CDC/Carl Washington, M.D. Emory Univ. School of Medicine; Mona Saraiya, MD, MPH SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 224909 Gross Science
What Is the Black Plague... And Should You Be Worried?
 
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Yosemite National Park just shut down two campgrounds due to the plague. Should you be worried? Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ National Park Service Public Health Advisory: http://www.nps.gov/public_health/info/alerts/al_plague.htm The CDC on Plague: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/plague/factsheet.asp http://www.cdc.gov/plague/faq/ WHO on Plague: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs267/en/ -- Host, Producer, Editor Anna Rothschild Writers Elizabeth Preston and Anna Rothschild DP, Sound Sam Stulin Jazz Bass Music Provided by APM IMAGES Half Dome in Yosemite National Park, California, USA Wikimedia Commons/Heiko von Raußendorff The black death. Watercolour by Monro S. Orr. Wellcome Images/Munro Scott Orr Danse macabre by Michael Wolgemut Wikimedia Commons/Michael Wolgemut Yersinia pestis fluorescent Wikimedia Commons/CDC CA Ground Squirrel on rock Wikimedia Commons/Howcheng Xenopsylla chepsis (oriental rat flea) Wikimedia Commons/CDC Plague -buboes Wikimedia Commons/CDC Acral gangrene due to plague Wikimedia Commons/CDC A rat leaving a ship via the mooring rope, thus spreading the plague. Drawing by A.L. Tarter, 194-Wellcome Images/ A.L. Tarter SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Jacob’s Ladder 007 Freesound/DJ Chronos MouthPop Freesound/HerbertBoland Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 555858 Gross Science
What Lives In Cheese?
 
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What makes cheese so delicious? It's the bacteria, fungi, mites, and maggots living in it, of course! Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ The Wolfe Lab at Tufts University https://sites.tufts.edu/wolfelab/ The Dutton Lab (note: this lab is moving from Harvard to UCSD): https://sites.google.com/site/theduttonlab/ Gordon Ramsay’s F Word on casu marzu https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZ_-JzM-YQg Credits Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound Kristen Clark Musette Parisienne Music Provided by APM Many thanks to Dr. Benjamin Wolfe and Andrew Janjigian Images and Video Images of cheese microbes and video of cheese mite Courtesy Benjamin Wolfe 105° + rennet = Miss Muffet’s Fantasy Flickr/Baron Chandler Curds and whey Flickr/Cecilia Delicious Cheese Flickr/Chris Buecheler iPhone Background – Cheese Please Flickr/Patrick Hoesly NCI swiss cheese Wikimedia Commons/National Cancer Institute Limburger-Käse Wikimedia Commons/MarkusHagenlocher Roquefort Coulet Flickr/Sarah Nichols Coulommiers lait cru Wikimedia Commons/Myrabella Mimolette3 Wikimedia Commons/Chris Waits Casu Marzi cheese Wikimedia Commons/Shardan Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 128742 Gross Science
Why Most Sand Tiger Sharks Die in the Womb
 
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Sand tiger shark fetuses eat their siblings in the womb. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Chapman, D., Wintner, S., Abercrombie, D., Ache, J., Bernard, A., Shivji, M., & Feldheim, K. (2013) The behavioural and genetic mating system of the sand tiger shark, Charcharias Taurus, an intrauterine cannibal. Biology Letters, 9: 20130003. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/9/3/20130003 Credits: Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound, Researcher, Intern Extraordinaire Kristen Clark Many thanks to Dr. Demian Chapman and Dr. Kevin Feldheim. Slow Bass Music Provided by APM Images Hatchling and Embryo ©Debra Abercrombie Sand Tiger Sharks Mating ©Grant Kennedy Carcharias taurus Newport Wikimedia Commons/Jeff Kubina “We Can Do It!” J. Howard Miller/Public Domain SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Running water bubbles-02 Freesound/kijjaz MouthPop Freesound/HerbertBoland Zombie pack vol. 1/Zombie eating flesh Freesound/14red0 Burps/wetbelch4 Freesound/plingativator 120 horror strings Freesound/Thirsk Swishes Freesound/pogotron Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 99888 Gross Science
The Horrors of Ancient Cataract Surgeries
 
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Doctors have been slicing into eyeballs for over 2500 years. Luckily, surgeons have made some progress since then. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Facts About Cataracts from the National Eye Institute: https://nei.nih.gov/health/cataract/cataract_facts More on Sushruta: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039177/ http://bjo.bmj.com/content/59/3/171.full.pdf Couching in the Modern World: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3743109/ More on the development of the first replacement lenses: http://bjo.bmj.com/content/85/9/1022.full For more weird ancient cataract surgery facts, check out this episode of the Sawbones podcast (and listen to Sawbones generally, cause it's awesome): http://www.maximumfun.org/sawbones/sawbones-cataracts -- Host, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Writer Elizabeth Preston DP, Sound Ceri Riley Gulag Archipelago Composed and Performed by Tim Cahill and Benjamin Ouellette IMAGES AND VIDEO Cataract in human eye Wikimedia Commons/Rakesh Ahuja, MD WMS 990 Monk performing eye operation Wellcome L0041072 Wikimedia Commons/Wellcome Images Augenoperation 1195 Wikimedia Commons/British Library MS Sloane 1975, f. 93. Couching for cataract. Wellcome L0021165 Wikimedia Commons/Wellcome Images Operation for Cataract. Wellcome M0007416 Wikimedia Commons/Wellcome Images Operation on the eye Wellcome M0007426 Wikimedia Commons/Wellcome Images Sustruta. Pen drawing. Wellcome V0006619 Wikimedia Commons/Wellcome Images Navy Fighter Pilots Aboard a British Aircraft Carrier. 4 January 1943, Aboard HMS Formidable. A14193 Wikimedia Commons/Imperial War Museums, Roper F G (Lt) Whirlwindfighterproject FA 18181s Wikimedia Commons/Royal Air Force official photographer Cataract Surgery Pond5/sheyno SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 75426 Gross Science
Why Get Your Tetanus Shot?
 
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Avoiding your tetanus shot? Here’s why that might be a bad idea. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Tetanus Info from the CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/tetanus/about/index.html http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/tetanus.html Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus elimination, from WHO: http://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/MNTE_initiative/en/ Diphtheria Info from the CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/dip.pdf http://www.cdc.gov/diphtheria/clinicians.html Pertussis Info from the CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/ -- Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound Ceri Riley Many thanks to Dr. William Schaffner, Infectious Disease Specialist and Professor of Preventive Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Slow Bass Music Provided by APM IMAGES AND VIDEO Clostridium tetani Wikimedia Commons/CDC Paardenstalmest Horse manure Wikimedia Commons/Rasbak Dust bunnies Wikimedia Commons/Stromcarlson Roman era wrought iron nail – Province of Pannonia II. Century – Hungary Wikimedia Commons/Takkk Woman riding a bike Wikimedia Commons/National Cancer Institute Lock-jaw 2857 Wikimedia Commons/CDC Opisthotonus in a patient suffering from tetanus – Painting by Sir Charles Bell – 1809 Wikimedia Commons/Sir Charles Bell Face on man with tetanus CDC Doctor Doing Vaccine Injection To A Child Pond5/GekaSkr Dirty white pseudomembrane classically seen in diphtheria 2013-07-06 11-07 Wikimedia Commons/User:Dileepunnikri Pertussis Wikimedia Commons/CDC Sleeping newborn infant Wikimedia Commons/Andrés Nieto Porras 31 weeks pregnant Flickr/Jerry Lai SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Poof of smoke Freesound/planman Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 337461 Gross Science
Why Do Dogs Eat Poop?
 
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It's called "coprophagia," and lots of dogs do it. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Behavioural defences in animals against pathogens and parasites: parallels with the pillars of medicine in humans https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3189355/ Coprophagia: Food for thought https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1680886/ American Kennel Club: Why Dogs Eat Poop and How to Stop It http://www.akc.org/content/health/articles/why-dogs-eat-poop/ -- Host, Writer, Editor Anna Rothschild Camera and Moral Support Vanessa Hill—Thank you! Feel Like Home Again Music Provided by APM Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2016 IMAGES McKeown, D., Luescher, A., & Machum, M. (1988). Coprophagia: Food for thought. The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 29(10), 849–850. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1680886/ File:My dogs 2 Wikimedia Commons/Atchoo420 Ancylostoma caninum attached to the intestinal mucosa CDC File:Smiling dog Wikimedia Commons/Brandon Weeks Hookworm filariform larva CDC Maltese puppy, 3 days old Wikimedia Commons/yasmapaz & ace_heart from Germany File:Canine hookworm egg 1 Wikimedia Commons/Joel Mills File:Цвергшнауцер белый Питомник "Ассон Ари" 12 Wikimedia Commons/Zorik07 File:Malta - Mellieha -Triq Selmun - Pharaoh Hound 02 ies Wikimediea Commons/Frank Vincentz File:Killer Chihuahua Wikimedia Commons/David Shankbone File:Kiara Wikimedia Commons/LuKaS Cuba File:Aaluna Wikimedia Commons/Zoidy File:Dog nose macro close up Wikimedia Commons/Stockimagery File:Caesaria f3 Wikimedia Commons/Caesaria File:Wilde huendin am stillen Wikimedia Commons/Stephan Gillmeier File:Sharpei ogon 867 Wikimedia Commons/Pleple2000 Fermented hot sauce Wikimedia Commons/Veganbaking.net Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 112255 Gross Science
Hookworms and the Myth of the "Lazy Southerner"
 
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The stereotype of the "lazy Southerner" may have been caused by widespread hookworm infections in the American South. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Rachel Nuwer’s NOVA Next Article—How a Worm Gave The South a Bad Name: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/nature/how-a-worm-gave-the-south-a-bad-name/ The CDC on Hookworm: http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/hookworm/ Health Affairs—How Four Once Common Disease Were Eliminated From The American South: http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/28/6/1734.short Sabin Vaccine Institute on the Human Hookworm Vaccine: http://www.sabin.org/programs/vaccine-development/human-hookworm-vaccine The New Yorker—The War of the Worms: http://www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/war-of-the-worms -- Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Camera, Sound Sophie Benson Easy Come Blues (Dobro Version) Music Provided by APM ©WGBH Educational Foundation Footage and Images The following videos and images were use courtesy of the Rockefeller Archive Center. Thank you! Pot Belly: http://rockefeller100.org/items/show/1677 School Children with Hookworm Disease: http://rockefeller100.org/items/show/1736 County Dispensary: http://www.rockefeller100.org/items/show/1676 Unhooking the Hookworm: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aqBoT_DyOsI Hookworm - Necator americanus (New World hookworm) ©David Scharf/Corbis Hookworm filariform larva. Nematode, worm, parasite. CDC/Dr. Mae Melvin Hookworm egg undergoing the process of cellular division CDC Newspaper Article Herald Democrat. October 29, 1909 Historic diagram showing unsanitary placement of a farm house privy CDC/Minnesota Department of Health, R. N. Barr Library; Librarians Melissa Rethlefsen and Marie Jones SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Swishes Freesound/Pogotron Projector Screen Pull in/out Freesound/YOH Jelly Mangling on Plate Freesound/lolamadeus Poof of Smoke Freesound/planman Bubbles Popping Freesound/ch0cchi Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 111500 Gross Science
The Castrating Zombie Parasite
 
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This parasite makes male crabs think that they’re pregnant females. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center’s on-going study on Loxothylacus panopaei: http://bit.ly/1JyRsbQ Credits: Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound, Researcher, Intern Extraordinaire Kristen Clark Many thanks to Monaca Noble and Amy Fowler. Mambo Bar Music Provided by APM Images Crab with Externa ©SERC (The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center) Blistering barnacles on a jetty Flickr/Mo Riza Canto White Boiled Shrimp Wikimedia Commons/Alpha Blue crab on market in Piraeus Wikimedia Commons/wpopp SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Castagnette-NTG1-1 Freesound/Seidhepriest Slide Whistle/slide_whistle_down_01 Freesound/joedeshon Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Slurping/make_drinking_slurping_aaaaaaaaaaah_small_belch Freesound/Anton Swishes Freesound/Pogotron Strange percussion/wasserflasche37 Freesound/schluppipuppie Balloon/globo07 Freesound/hyo Voice of male parasite The Incredible Ralph Bouquet Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
Просмотров: 144365 Gross Science
Why Don't Vultures Get Food Poisoning?
 
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Vultures have a number of traits that allow them to eat the grossest stuff. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Vulture microbiome paper: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/141125/ncomms6498/full/ncomms6498.html Hawk Mountain Sanctuary Association: http://www.hawkmountain.org/ -- Host, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Writers Elizabeth Gillis and Anna Rothschild DP, Sound Elizabeth Gillis Bye Bye Buddy Music Provided by APM IMAGES AND VIDEO Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2015 Vultures Eating Zebra Courtesy Dan Fagin Gyps fulvus 02 Wikimedia Commons/H. Zell SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Jelly Mangling on a Plate Freesound/lolamadeus Projector Screen Pull In Out Freesound/yoh Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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How Different Diseases Make You Smell
 
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What's making you sick? You might be able to tell based on how you smell. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Electronic noses, plus tables with more diseases and how they smell http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/11/1/1105/htm Training Dogs to Sniff Out Cancer http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/09/10/training-dogs-to-sniff-out-cancer/?_r=0 Credits: Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound, Intern Extraordinaire Kristen Clark Music: Chauncy ©Podington Bear Images Hippocrates Wikimedia Commons/Peter Paul Rubens …bread snorting! Flickr/James Vaughan Abbys snowsuit Flickr/Dave Jacquin Pancakes Flickr/Lemsipmatt Edwardian Butchers shop Flickr/Paul Townsend Bdna cropped Wikimedia Commons/Jahobr Fish Head Wikimedia Commons/mdid Cyranose 320 Labelled Wikimedia Commons/Cyrano Sciences Inc. SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Vocal/Huh_male Freesound/Adam_N Sniff Freesown/jrssandoval Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Sipping a juice box Freesound/trundlefly Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Three Surprising Questions About Periods
 
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In honor of Valentine’s Day, I’m celebrating the 10s of millions of people who will be menstruating on the Hallmark holiday. What should you do if you have your period in the field? Check out Emily’s video on The Brain Scoop! https://youtu.be/jjFZ1nzijrI Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Paper on proteins in periods: http://1.usa.gov/1QrzJ4L LiveScience on why menstruation remains a medical mystery: http://bit.ly/1PD17x0 Francie Diep writing for PopSci on why you poop more when you have your period: http://bit.ly/20oMYIC Regarding the section on how menstruation evolved, as I indicated in the video, this is one hypothesis. Here’s more info on it, along with other ideas: Paper on the hypothesis I discuss about why menstruation evolved: http://bit.ly/1msFqaw Pharyngula on the mother-fetus conflict hypothesis of how menstruation evolved: http://bit.ly/1PNJvC2 Paper on energy economy in the evolution of menstruation: http://bit.ly/1QVOXlb BBC article that addresses multiple hypotheses for the evolution of menstruation: http://bbc.in/1KFFE9B Also, a note: In this piece, when I say menstruation, I’m referring to “overt menstruation,” where the lining is shed and then expelled from the body. Some people use the term “covert menstruation” to talk about animals that have “estrous cycles” and reabsorb their endometrium. -- Host, Writer, Editor, Animator Anna Rothschild Additional Research and Writing Karishma Desai Many thanks to Dr. Kathryn Clancy and Dr. Deena Emera. Also, special thanks to Vanessa Hill, Joe Hanson, the entire PBS Digital Studios team for the awesome brainstorming session, Seeta Joseph, Allison Eck, Greg Kestin, and Jeffrey Wood. Bad Music Provided by APM Original Footage and Animations ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2016 Footage and Images Lady Parts Cross Stitches Courtesy WhittyB To purchase the patterns, visit her Etsy shop: http://etsy.me/1K81Klb Female Scientist Examining Erlenmeyer Flask With Red Liquid Hd Pond5/motion_poland Color SEM of uterus endometrium (secretory phase) Professor P.M. Motta & E. Vizza / Science Photo Library Phylogeny Courtesy Dr. Deena Emera File:Schimpanse Zoo Leipsig Wikimedia Commons/Thomas Lersch File:Pallas’s long-tongued bat Atsme (Betty Wills) File:Eastern Rock Elephant Shrew Wikimedia Commons/Marktittley File:Do i look funny or something Wikimedia Commons/Emily Killian Molina from austin, United States SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Pencil_check_mark_2 Freesound/jakobhandersen Short Fart_01 Freesound/DSISStudios Gross Science is produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Can Poop Cure an Infection?
 
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Fecal transplants-putting one person's poop into another person's gut-are surprisingly effective cures for the dangerous bacterial infection, Clostridium difficile. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Check out "Superbugs: The Empire Strikes Bacteria" from IT'S OKAY TO BE SMART: http://youtu.be/fyRyZ1zKtyA More on fecal transplants, the first poop bank, and what the FDA has to say: http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2014/03/first-stool-bank-survive Curious about donating feces? OpenBiome: http://www.openbiome.org/ Interview on the history of fecal transplants, recent studies, and where the field is headed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3365524/ Credits: Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound, Researcher, Intern Extraordinaire Elizabeth Gillis Music: Big Poppa ©Podington Bear Images ClostridiumDifficile Wikimedia Commons/CDC SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Rummage in metal box Freesound/monotraum Rusty Metal Squeak Goose Freesound/gelo_papas Poof of Smoke Freesound/Planman Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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You Have Mites Living On Your Face
 
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Right now, there are tiny mites eating, laying eggs, dying, and leaking feces on your face. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Your Wild Life—Meet Your Mites: http://bit.ly/1KBhGaT Mites and Rosacea: http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/content/61/Pt_11/1504.full.pdf+html?sid=29c72a69-5b27-422d-a43d-557697566279 Credits Host, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound, Writer Kristen Clark Many thanks to Dr. Dan Fergus and Dr. Anne A. Madden. Music: “Moondots and Polkabeams” ©Podington Bear Images and Video Image of Face Mite and Video of Mite Laying Egg ©Your Wild Life, North Carolina State University Note: Face mite belonged to Brian Malow, Curator of the SECU Daily Planet and Science Comedian Acne Rosacea, man Wellcome Library, London/A. Henning Blepharitis Wikimedia Common/clubtable SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Bubbles Popping Freesound/ch0cchi Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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The REAL Rudolph Has Bloody Antlers and Super Vision
 
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Santa's reindeer just got a whole lot more interesting. Subscribe to Gross Science! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ Paper on reindeer seeing UV light: http://bit.ly/2i1EfOx Mother Jones on reindeer size and climate change: http://bit.ly/2i1KBNL Info on people who herd reindeer around the world: http://reindeerherding.org Reindeer’s IUCN Status: https://www.iucn.org/content/reindeer-not-just-christmas-0 -- Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Camera Jeffrey Wood Snowflake Waltz a Tinker Belles b Sugar Plums b Music Provided by APM Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2106 GROSS FOOTAGE AND IMAGES Male Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) shedding the velvet from its antlers, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway, September Roy Mangersnes/Nature Picture Library Santa Claus rides in a reindeer sleigh. He hastens to give gifts before Christmas. This is fast team of eight deer. Shutterstock/Vladimir Melnikov reindeer in velvet roaming in lush green arctic svalbard meadow Shutterstock/FloridaStock full grown shaggy Reindeer with peeling shedding velvet on antlers Shutterstock/paolo airenti Caribou group on pastures in the mountains of Kamchatka in Russia Shutterstock/Sergey Krasnoshchokov 20070818-0001-strolling reindeer Wikimedia Commons/Alexandre Buisse OSHA radiation spectrum Wikimedia Commons/OSHA Safety and Health Topics Norway on the globe (Svalbard special) (Europe centered) Wikimedia Commons/TUBS White Baby Reindeer Flickr/Heather Sunderland Sami people north of Arctic Circle, Norway Wikimedia Commons/Preus museum Sami village in Kanadaskogen (4502615016) Wikimedia Commons/Bergen Public Library Norway Sørsame (8220918846) Wikimedia Commons/Kommunikasjonsavdelingen NTFK Sami People with a reindeer Wikimedia Commons/(WT-en) JensANDMarian GROSS SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Pencil Freesound/fastson Jelly Mangling on Plate Freesound/lolamadeus Jawharp Boing Freesound/plingativator Projector Screen Pull In Out Freesound/yoh Candy wrapper crinkle b volivieri Dog Howl 01 Freesound/cgeffex Basket creak Freesound/sheepfilms Gross Science is produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Sea Cucumber Evisceration
 
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Sea cucumbers can eviscerate themselves, shooting their internal organs through either their head or their butt. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Echinoblog posts on evisceration, regeneration, and Cuvierian tubules-a must read: http://echinoblog.blogspot.com/2012/01/sea-cucumber-evisceration-defense.html http://echinoblog.blogspot.com/2012/02/sea-cucumber-defense-pt2-evisceration.html Evisceration and Regeneration: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jemt.1189/abstract Cuvierian Tubules: http://www.biolbull.org/content/198/1/34.short Credits: Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound, Intern Extraordinaire Elizabeth Gillis Videos of Sea Cucumber Evisceration Courtesy Jose Garcia-Arraras Special Thanks to Jose Garcia-Arraras http://devneuro.hpcf.upr.edu/DevNeuro/Welcome.html Music Provided by APM Images Euapta godeffroyi1 Wikimedia Commons/François Michonneau Soldier with Prosthetic Limb at the Personnel Recovery Centre in Edinburgh MOD 45152288 Wikimedia Commons/Sgt Ian Forsyth RLC Thelenota ananas Wikimedia Common/Leonard Low from Australia Treasure chest candycane sea cucumber 2 Wikimedia Commons/q phia Tubes de Cuvier émis par Holothuria pervicax Wikimedia Commons/Philippe Bourjon Vert7 (10818457336) Wikimedia Commons/University of Liverpool Faculty of Health from Liverpool, United Kingdom SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Bubbles Popping Freesound/Ch0cchi Swish_unwrap_fast Freesound/goldendiaphragm Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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What Really Causes Cavities?
 
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Hate going to the dentist? Keep the millions of microbes in your mouth happy. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ More Microbe Week videos! (Click "show more" for links) BrainCraft: Good Sleep = Good Gut? https://youtu.be/jkjqQXX47KE Gross Science: What Really Causes Cavities? https://youtu.be/WU05zZJKSdE AMNH: Microbes of New York https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTdeZU_8cLI Science Friday: Your Very Special Bacterial Cloud https://youtu.be/2_ib7Z4bmrg Inspired by the Secret World Inside You exhibition http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/the-secret-world-inside-you ↓Want more info?↓ Welcome to the Microbiome, by Susan Perkins and Rob DeSalle : http://amzn.to/1PtAi3u Kissing and the microbiome: http://bit.ly/1PNCkFH More on thrush from the CDC: http://1.usa.gov/1KyxNp2 PDF: Role of the Oral Microflora in Health: http://bit.ly/1nueqsB The Role of Bacteria in the Caries Process: http://bit.ly/1PNDPDQ -- Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Camera, Sound Katherine Hashimoto Many thanks to Drs. Susan Perkins, Rob DeSalle, and Anne Tanner Toy Box Music Provided by APM Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation Footage and Images Dental Plaque, SEM Steve Gschmeissner/Science Photo Library Dental Plaque Bacteria in Phase Microscope 600X Blue Filter Pond5/jamesbenet Lovers Kissing Romantic Romantic Beautiful Kissing Teens Couple in Hd Pond5/TH_Producties Elderly Couple Pond5/Fotoluminate Dental Plaque From Human Sample 800Z Microscope Pond5/jamesbenet Devan Flickr/Seth Lemmons Candida albicans 2 Wikimedia Commons/GrahamColm Decayed wisdom tooth Wikimedia Commons/ProjectManhattan Dental cavity1 Wikimedia Commons/Digantatalukdar Digital cavity2 Wikimedia Commons/Digantatalukdar Double big gulp Wikimedia Commons/Russell Bernice from New York City, USA Plaque Disclosing Tablets Wikimedia Commons/Themolarbear File: Sugar Cubes (7164573186) Wikimedia Commons/david pacey from LEEDS, West yorkshire File: The Dental cosmos (1912) (14769050452) Wikimedia Commons/White, J.D. McQuillen, J.H. (John Hugh), 1826-1879. Ziegler, George Jacob, 1821-1895. White, James William, 1826-1891. Kirk, Edward C. (Edward Cameron), 1856-1933. Anthony, L. Pierce (Lovick Pierce), b. 1877. File: Phagocytose Entamoeba gingivalis-PMN Wikimedia Commons/Mark Bonner dmd, Institut International de Parodontie, www. parodontite.com Oral thrush. Aphthae. Candida albicans. CDC SFX Dun dun dun Freesound/Simon_Lacelle Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Jelly/Jelly Mangling on Plate Freesound/lolamadeus Bubbles Popping Freesound/ch0cchi Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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What's Living On Your Contact Lenses?
 
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This is why you should always take good care of your contact lenses. Follow me to Reactions! https://youtu.be/9fzQBNH5Cp4 Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Paper on the pathogenesis of contact lens-associated microbial keratitis: http://1.usa.gov/1oqzsZ1 Paper on one contact lens defense (which offers therapeutic promise): http://bit.ly/1oqAqoa -- Host, Writer, Editor, Animator Anna Rothschild Camera and Production Help Danya Gordin Up To No Good c Music Provided by APM Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2016 IMAGES Bacterial keratitis, a condition in which the eye’s cornea becomes inflamed due to bacterial infection Getty/BIOPHOTO ASSOCIATES Female Eye Doctor In Examination Room Pond5/GinosPhotos All stock photos from Reactions segments from Shutterstock File:Clare-314 Wikimedia Commons/Eddie314 File:Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture Wikimedia Commons/Sun14916 Fusarium sp. CDC/Dr. Hardin Herpes Viruses CDC/Dr. Fred Murphy; Sylvia Whitfield Acanthamoeba polyphaga CDC/Catherine Armbruster; Margaret Williams Photo Credit: Janice Haney Carr Shirley McClinton making notations on a Petri place of Fusarium fungal colonies CDC/Mark Lindsley, Sc.D. D(ABMM), Lynette Benjamin, Shirley McClinton Photo Credit: James Gathany Clean, open contact lens case CDC/Amanda Mills Photo Credit: Amanda Mills SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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The Food Poisoning Lurking In Your Freezer
 
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Listeria turns your own cells against you, and can live where other types of food poisoning perish. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ The CDC on Listeria https://www.cdc.gov/listeria/ Why Food Labels Don’t Mean What You Think http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/body/food-expiration-dates/ -- Host Anna Rothschild Writer, Illustrator, Animator Eben E. B. Bein Spying Music Provided by APM Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2016 IMAGES AND FOOTAGE Movie S3 from Rickettsia Actin-Based Motility Occurs in Distinct Phases Mediated by Different Actin Nucleators Courtesy Dr. Thomas Burke http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361066 Listeria monocytogenes moving in PtK2 cells Many thanks to Dr. Julie Theriot and her lab members http://cmgm.stanford.edu/theriot/ Chicken meat Processed At Food Processing Factory. Poultry Production line Pond5/mrs_veronik Electron microcraph of a Listeria bacterium in tissue CDC/Dr. Balasubr Swaminathan; Peggy Harris Menschenhaar 200 fach Wikimedia Commons/Jan Homann Female shadow with organs Wikimedia Commons/Mikael Häggström SFX SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Male drinking slurping aaaaaaaaaaah small belch Freesound/anton Running water bubbles 02 Feesound/kijjaz Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Slide whistle up 01 Freesound/joedeshon Slide whistle down 01 Freesound/joedeshon MouthPop Freesound/HerbertBoland Bubbles Popping Freesound/ch0cchi Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Why Does This Frog Have So Many Legs?!
 
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These frogs can have up to TEN back legs. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Instagram! https://www.instagram.com/annarothschild/ ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ Parasite (Ribeiroia ondatrae) infection linked to amphibian malformations in the western United States: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1890/0012-9615(2002)072[0151:PROILT]2.0.CO;2/full -- Host, Producer Anna Rothschild Writer, Researcher, Editor, Illustrator, Animator K Melvin Summer Rain Music Provided by APM Gross Footage and Stills Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017 Frog and Snail Footage Courtesy Freshwaters Illustrated P. regilla with parasite-induced limb malformation Wikimedia Commons/ Brett A. Goodman, Pieter T. J. Johnson Gross SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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The Case For Eating Bugs
 
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I ate a lot of bugs...and (mostly) liked them. Check out Deep Look's video on Palm Weevils! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6a3Q5DzeBM&feature=youtu.be Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ Grasshopper Recipe: https://www.thespruce.com/chapulines-mexican-grasshoppers-2342567 Scorpion Recipe (I replaced scorpions for the seafood): http://steamykitchen.com/23625-thai-seafood-curry-recipe.html Ants on a log: I made this one up. Just sprinkle ants on celery with cream cheese. I’d also recommend eating the ants in a salad, or maybe in gazpacho. They were pretty good! Lollipop: This was from Hotlix (not sponsored) I bought all the bugs online from edibleinsects.com (again, not sponsored.) 2013 United Nations report on entomophagy: http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3253e/i3253e.pdf Another take on why Westerners don’t typically eat bugs: https://askentomologists.com/2015/02/09/why-dont-we-eat-bugs-in-western-culture/ -- Host, Writer, Editor Anna Rothschild Camera, Production Assistance K Melvin Cherry Blossom - Underscore Music Provided by APM Gross Footage and Stills Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017 Footage of Palm Weevils Courtesy KQED Deep Look Lobster Dinner (6013079655) Wikimedia Commons/Benson Kua from Toronto, Canada Compsobuthus acutecarinatus (1) Wikimedia Commons/Philipp Weigell African.field.cricket.arp Wikimedia Commons/Adrian Pingstone Scorpio maurus palmatus, Israel 1 Wikimedia Commons/MinoZig - מינוזיג Gross SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Wink Freesound/Bennychico11 Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Ribbon Worms: A Gross Vlog
 
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Some weird trivia on those gross worms that are all over the Internet. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Proboscis shooting ribbon worm: http://bzfd.it/1TdHqA9 Green ribbon worm: http://bit.ly/1TdHvDQ Ribbon Worm Press: Smithsonian Article http://bit.ly/1TdF4kI io9 Article http://bit.ly/1DBj78b\ Primary Sources: Crab fisheries and ribbon worms http://bit.ly/1TdGgVg Physical description and genetics http://bit.ly/1TdGlIu Credits: Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife -3047 female Dungeness crab munsel odfw Wikimedia Commons/Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Die Nemertinen des Golfes von Neapel Flickr/Biodiversity Heritage Library How-the-pilidium-larva-feeds-1742-9994-10-47-S6 Wikimedia Commons/von Dassow , Emlet R, Maslakova S Scientific figures of proboscis ©James Gonzalez-Cueto et al http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=4082
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Dinosaur Parasites!
 
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Even the mighty T. rex was covered in creepy, crawly parasites. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0007288 Evidence of Intestinal Parasites of Dinosaurs https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16623965 Paleohaemoproteus burmacis gen. n., sp. n. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) from an Early Cretaceous biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) http://bit.ly/2uAbmhH -- Host, Producer Anna Rothschild Camera, Sound, Research, Writing, Illustrating, Animating K Melvin Brave New World Watch Out - 30 Margarita Fantastic Journey Music Provided by APM ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017 GROSS FOOTAGE AND STILLS Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017 Jurassic Park (1993) Universal Pictures, Amblin Entertainment Beautiful Pigeon Bird Walking On Grass In The Square. Curious Pigeons Standing Pond5/ronedya Coprolite Wikimedia Commons/United States Geological Survey Dinosaur coprolite (Morrison Formation, Upper Jurassic; Cortez, Colorado, USA) Flickr/James St. John Entamoeba coli CDC/ Dr. Mae Melvin Fasciolopsis buski CDC/Dr. Mae Melvin Ascaris lumbridcoides CDC Parasite130049 Haemoproteus syrnii -fig3 Wikimedia Commons/Karadjian, G., Puech, M.-P., Duval, L., Chavatte, J.-M., Snounou, G. & Landau, I. 2013: Haemoproteus syrnii in Strix aluco from France: morphology, stages of sporogony in a hippoboscid fly, molecular characterization and discussion on the identification of Haemoproteus species. Parasite, 20, 32. doi:10.1051/parasite/2013031 Biting midge Flickr/Oregon State University DMSN dinosaurs Wikimedia Commons/Luke Jones T-rex Sue 1070329 Wikimedia Commons/Amphibol AMNH rex mount Wikimedia Commons/Osborn, H.F. Figures 1, 3, and 4 Wolff, E. D. S., Salisbury, S. W., Horner, J. R., & Varricchio, D. J. (2009). Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs. PLoS ONE, 4(9), e7288. GROSS SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Short Fart 01 Freesound/dsisstudios Big Dinosaur Whirrs Freesound/robinhood76 Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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See Microbes with this DIY Phone Microscope
 
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See the tiny creatures living in a pond or puddle using your smartphone, poster tack, and a laser pointer. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Here are some other great DIY Microscope tutorials! Build a microscope stand for your laser pointer lens scope: http://bit.ly/1cluVgD Create a 1000x smartphone microscope with a glass bead: http://bit.ly/1Soy8Bx Don’t have a smartphone? Try this water drop microscope from Mr. Wizard: http://bit.ly/1mlTcg5 -- Host, Writer, Editor Anna Rothschild Special Thanks Greg Kestin, Jeffrey Wood, Janet Sonenberg Good Times a Music Provided by APM Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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The Strangest Plant In The World?!
 
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PBS Digital Studios Survey! https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/pbsds2017 The plant Hydnora africana is a parasite that smells foul...and that’s not even the weirdest thing about it. Subscribe to Gross Science! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ Bolin, J., Maass, E., & Musselman, L. (2009). Pollination Biology of Hydnora africana Thunb. (Hydnoraceae) in Namibia: Brood‐Site Mimicry with Insect Imprisonment. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 170(2), 157-163. doi:10.1086/593047 http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/593047?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents More info and pictures of Hydnora from Lytton J. Musselman at Old Dominion University http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/parasitic/hydnora.php -- Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Camera, Sound Natasha Ishak Many thanks to Dr. Lytton John Musselman for his help with this piece. Gross Footage and Images Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017 Images of Hydnora plants Courtesy Dr. Lytton John Musselman Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Camera, Sound Natasha Ishak Boom Town Music Provided by APM Road In Summer Beautiful Forest. Pond5/Kinomasterskaya Sun Shining Through Green Walnut Tree Leaves, Natural Energy Hd Pond5/viggo Green Little Plants Growing Pond5/Kolosigor Euphorbia caput-medusa] Shutterstock/Nadezhda Kharitonova Dionaea muscipula trap Wikimedia Commons/che Corpse Plant Wikimedia Commons/liz west Rafflesia 80 cm Wikimedia Commons/Steve Cornish (cornstaruk) from Marlow, UK Hydnora africana Sachs Wikimedia Commons/Julius Sachs (1832-1897) Flickr - Rainbirder - Golden Jackal Wikimedia Commons/Steve Garvie HydnoraAfricanaKarasburgDistrictNamibia2002Musselman Wikimedia Commons/Lytton John Musselman HydnoraJohannisUmBaronaWadMedaniSudanMusselman Wikimedia Commons/Lytton John Musselman Gross SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Male drinking slurping aaaaaaaaaaah small belch Freesound/Anton Slide whistle down 01 Freesound/joedeshon Slide whistle up 01 Freesound/joedeshon Flying Mosquito Freesound/zywx Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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What Can You Learn From Ancient Poop?
 
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Fossilized poop, called coprolites, can reveal surprising secrets about the past. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ More on Coprolite preservation and analysis: University of California Museum of Paleontology: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/paleo/fossils/coprol.html Daniel Lametti, Slate: http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/explainer/201 Karl Reinhard: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1043&context=natrespapers Karen Chin, Paleontological Society Papers, V8 2002: http://www.yale.edu/ypmip/predation/Chapter_02.pdf For more on the Lloyds Bank turd from York, UK (Viking coprolite): http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/objects/51Et55R_RuCmabtTgQllzQ http://www.buzzfeed.com/alexkasprak/is-this-the-largest-viking-turd-ever-found http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2003/jun/06/artsandhumanities.arts1 Review paper about plant and animal remains in ancient york: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/1174/ Coprolites found in Puerto Rico: Nature News article by Sara Reardon: http://www.nature.com/news/ancient-faeces-reveal-origins-of-puerto-rican-natives-1.15203 Primary research papers: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0106833 and http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0065191 Cangrande della Scala’s poison-filled coprolites: Primary research paper (behind a paywall): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440314004580 Discovery news coverage: http://news.discovery.com/history/archaeology/mummy-poo-solves-700-year-old-murder-mystery-150110.htm -- Host, Producer Anna Rothschild Writer, Animator, Editor, DP, Sound Rachel Becker Many thanks to Dr. Dennis Jenkins, Dr. Karen Chin, Dr. Hendrik Poinar, Dr. Andrew Knoll, and Dr. Ainara Sistiaga. Menu Ouvrier Music Provided by APM Images and Video Lloydsbankcoprolite 001 Wikimedia Commons/ Linda Spashett Storye book Stone texture l1 DeviantArt/enframed (Stock-unrestricted) Cangrande1 (mummy) Wikimedia Commons/Gino Fornaciairi Cangrande.portrait Wikimedia Commons/Frn Brz spetti di vita quotidiana, vomito,Taccuino Sanitatis (Vomiting man) Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain Matricaria recutita (chamomile) Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain Morus alba Blanco1 (mulberry) Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Groaning gurgle SoundsExciting/Public Domain Short Fart_01 DSISStudios/Public Domain Pop Anagar/Public Domain Squelch Billox30/Public Domain Additional adorable sound effects Rachel Becker Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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What Does Lead Poisoning Do To Your Brain?
 
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How does lead damage our brains—and what can we do to stop it? Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ Dysregulation of BDNF-TrkB Signaling in Developing Hippocampal Neurons by Pb2þ: Implications for an Environmental Basis of Neurodevelopmental Disorders: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22345308 CDC on Lead Poisoning: https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/ -- Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Camera, Sound Ana Aceves Culture Shock Music Provided by APM Special Thanks to: Dr. Tomás Guilarte, Dean of Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work at Florida International University Dr. Patric K. Stanton, New York Medical College FOOTAGE AND STILLS Original Footage and Stills ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017 Footage of brain cells with and without BDNF Courtesy Dr. Tomás Guilarte Neuronsfiring-loop Pond5/kitchendon Lead electrolytic and 1cm3 cube Wikimedia Commons/Alchemist-hp Lead Pipe - Bath Roman Baths Wikimedia commons/Andrew Dunn LeadPaint1 Wikimedia Commons/Thester11 Peinture Plomb écailles 3 Wikimedia Commons/Lamiot PSM V01 D357 Human encelphalon Wikimedia Commons/Popular Science Monthly Volume 1 Skelett-Mensch-drawing Wikimedia Commons/Hubert Ludwig 31 Weeks Pregnant Flickr/Jerry Lai New baby Flickr/Jeremy Tarling SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Bubbles Popping Freesound/ch0cchi Nord analog howling wind storm Freesound/medialint Wink Freesound/Bennychico11 Lock Unlock Freesound/cemagar Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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What Happens When You Get Rabies?
 
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Rabies may have lead to legends of werewolves, vampires, and zombies. And while it’s preventable, it still plagues around 60,000 people a year. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Instagram! https://www.instagram.com/annarothschild/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ WHO on Rabies: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs099/en/ CDC on Rabies: https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/ Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2014: http://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/pdfplus/10.2460/javma.248.7.777 Map of US human rabies deaths from 2003-July 2014 drawn from data here: https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/location/usa/surveillance/human_rabies.html http://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/pdf/10.2460/javma.245.10.1111 Many thanks to Nyar Lathotep for pointing out that the Laws of Eshnunna (the tablets I speak about at the end of the piece) were clay tablets, not stone, and date to the Old Babylonian period. -- Host, Writer, Editor Anna Rothschild Camera, Sound, Research K Melvin Nature’s World 3 Horrendous Crimes Unwanted Assignment Main underscore Biotic Factor b The Human Kernal a Music Provided by APM Special Thanks to Dr. Ryan Wallace GROSS FOOTAGE AND STILLS Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017 The Wolf Man (1941) Universal Pictures Nosferatu (1922) Jofa-Atelier Berlin-Johannisthal, Prana-Film GmbH Night of the Living Dead (1968) Image Ten, Laurel Group, Market Square Productions The Nervous System Archive.org/ Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corporation Circulatory Control Archive.org/Massachusetts Institute of Technology Nursing Care of the Sick and Injured Archive.org/US Dept Health, Education & Welfare; US Office of Civil Defense Close-up of dog’s face during late-stage “dumb” paralytic rabies CDC/Barbara Andrews "Rabies and hydrophobia..." George Fleming 1872 Wellcome L0018105 Wikimedia Commons/George Fleming Canine suspected of being rabid and aggressive CDC Rabies control in the community US National Library of Medicine Rabies Patient CDC Senses of Man Archive.org/Indiana University, Bloomington. Audio-Visual Center Tri-colored bat (6022400811) Wikimedia Commons/Gary Peeples/USFWS Presence of dog-transmitted human rabies based on most recent data points from difference sources, 2010-2014 WHO Middle Ages rabid dog Wikimedia Commons/Scanned from Dobson, Mary J. (2008) Disease, Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Quercus, p. 157 Map of rabies cases in the US since 2003 GROSS SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Wink Freesound/Bennychico11 Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Three Ways Pee Could Change the World
 
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We can use urine to make medicines, power cell phones, and create “pee-cycled” water. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ From Gunpowder to Teeth Whitener: The Science Behind Historic Uses of Urine, from Smithsonian: http://bit.ly/1LkDKWb Management of INfertility: Past, Present and Future (from a personal perspective), by Bruno Lunenfeld: http://bit.ly/1LkFiPZ ‘Pee-Power’ to light camps in disaster zones, from UWE Bristol: http://bit.ly/1LkDTsK Urine-tricity, from Bristol Robotics Laboratory: http://bit.ly/1LkDZ3w From toilet to tap: Getting a taste for drinking recycled waste water, from CNN: http://cnn.it/1LkEgTZ Orange County’s Groundwater Replenishment System: http://bit.ly/1LkKxPq -- Host, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Writer Christina Couch DP, Sound Sam Stulin Applied Sunblock A Music Provided by APM Special thanks to Dr. Ioannis Ieropoulos and the Orange County Water District. IMAGES AND VIDEO Mobile phone runs on urine power - Bristol Robotics Laboratory Courtesy University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LTprRQTKAw Orange County’s Groundwater Replenishment System Jim Kutzle, Orange County Water District Microfiltration Basin Orange County Water District Reverse Osmosis trains of the Groundwater Replenishment System Steve Crise, courtesy of American Water Works Association (AWWA) Crystal-clear purified water from the Groundwater Replenishment System is piped to OCWD’s percolation ponds in Anaheim, California Mark Greening, Orange County Water District MF Cell Steve Crise, courtesy of the American Water Works Association (AWWA) Woman Teeth iStock/Kurhan Clothesline iStock/TheCrimsonMonkey Filling glass with tap water iStock/vitapix Elvis Presley Jailhouse Rock Wikimedia Commons/Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc. Gentlemen Prefer Blondes Movie Trailer Screenshot (34) Wikimedia Commons/Mddlpps Nuns clamming -Toni Frissell LC-F9-04-57090012-17 Wikimedia Commons/Toni Frissell Portrait de Dante Wikimedia Commons/Sandro Botticelli Sputnik 191378-full Wikimedia Commons/NASA Symptoms of menopause (raster) Wikimedia Commons/Mikael Häggström Toilet on the ISS NASA SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Wink Freesound/Bennychico_11 cough cough sniff sniff Freesound/harrypeeks light-1 Freesound/tictacshutup Peeing Freesound/Safadancer Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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These Animals Use Poop to Protect Themselves
 
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Nothing says “stay away” quite like a fecal shield. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Articles on Fecal Shields (behind paywalls): http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1020905920952 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10682-012-9603-1#page-1 Skipper Caterpillars from NatGeo: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/05/0516_030516_caterpillars.html Article on skipper caterpillars flinging poop (behind a paywall): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00442.x/abstract Article on Spider Masquerading as Bird Poop: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4038025/ -- Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Illustrators Anna Rothschild and Elizabeth Gillis DP, Sound Elizabeth Gillis Surfing Penguin A Music Provided by APM Images and Video Cassida cf rubiginosa larva 2011.ogv Wikimedia Commons/Pristurus Silver-spotted Skipper Caterpillar Flickr/ ©Rohini Mehta 2011 Images of the spider Cyclosa ginnaga and bird poop Courtesy Dr. I-MinTso SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Slide Whistle Up 01 Freesound/joedeshon Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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White Sand Beaches Are Made of Fish Poop
 
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Parrotfish poop out sand… and that’s just the beginning of what makes these guys weird. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Absurd Creature of The Week post from Wired on parrotfish: http://www.wired.com/2014/08/absurd-creature-of-the-week-parrotfish/ (If you like Gross Science, you should be following this series by Matt Simon. It’s awesome.) The Bellwood Lab: http://www.bellwoodlab.com/ -- Host, Writer, Editor, Animator Anna Rothschild DP, Sound Elizabeth Gillis Many thanks to Dr. David Bellwood. Home Comforts Music Provided by APM IMAGES Humphead parrotfish Flickr/Tchami Plage Feuillere Wikimedia Commons/Smiley Protective Cocoon envelops Sleeping Parrotfish Getty Images/Reinhard Dirscheri aiga toilet women bg openclipart/jean_victor_balin aiga toilet men bg openclipart/jean_victor_balin GRILLED PARROT FISH Flickr/whologwhy SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Swishes Freesound/pogotron Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Everything You Didn't Want To Know About Snot
 
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You swallow a ton of snot every single day. Welcome to the gross world of mucus. Head over to Reactions for more snot science! https://youtu.be/RbcUcYDejks Previous collab with Reactions: http://bit.ly/2jojAsd Subscribe to Gross Science! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ The Conversation: Health Check: what you need to know about mucus and phlegm: http://theconversation.com/health-check-what-you-need-to-know-about-mucus-and-phlegm-33192 Popular Science: Why Does Your Nose Run When You're Sick?: http://www.popsci.com/why-does-your-nose-run-when-youre-sick -- Host, Writer, Animator, Edit Anna Rothschild Camera, Sound Annette Choi Skeletone Deaf b Music Provided by APM Special Thanks to Dr. Ralph Metson GROSS FOOTAGE AND STILLS Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the trachea (respiratory epithelium). Light microscope micrograph. Shutterstock/Jose Luis Calvo Woman Digging Nose Shutterstock/ CHAjAMP File:Surgical anatomy - a treatise on human anatomy in its application to the practice of medicine and surgery (1901) (14780479334) Wikimedia Commons/Internet Archive Book Images Delightful, Jesara Flickr, Nathan Day 59, Project 365 - 12.18.09 Flickr/William Brawley GROSS SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Cough Cough Sniff Sniff Freesound/harrypeeks Male Drinking Slurping Aaaaaaaaaaah Small Belch Freesound/anton Pfiff Whistle Freesound/tommorawe Gross Science is produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Why Do These Babies Eat Their Mother's Skin?
 
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Legless amphibians, called caecilians, have a very strange way of feeding their young. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Wilkinson M, Sherratt E, Starace F, Gower DJ (2013) A New Species of Skin-Feeding Caecilian and the First Report of Reproductive Mode in Microcaecilia(Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae). PLoS ONE 8(3): e57756. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057756 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0057756 Credits: Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound, Researcher, Intern Extraordinaire Elizabeth Gillis Many thanks to Dr. Emma Sherratt. Monkfish (b) Music Provided by APM Images S. vittatus © john@measey.com Images of Microcaecilia dermatophaga (including thumbnail) © 2013 Wilkinson et al (PLos ONE) Christian Charity Il Guercino/Public Domain SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S BUBBLES POPPING Freesound/Ch0cchi Crumple Dry Leaf 1 Freesound/elliotlp Biting an Apple Freesound/thedapperdan Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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The World's Most Expensive Fungus
 
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The priciest fungus in the world is a parasite that grows from a caterpillar’s head. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ NPR—Caterpillar Fungus: The Viagra of the Himalayas: http://www.npr.org/2011/10/09/141164173/caterpillar-fungus-the-viagra-of-the-himalayas National Geographic—Caterpillar Fungus Has Anti-Inflammatory Properties: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/121128-caterpillar-fungus-swelling-animals-science/ Cochrane—Cordyceps sinensis (a Chinese medicinal herb) for treating chronic kidney disease: http://www.cochrane.org/CD008353/RENAL_cordyceps-sinensis-a-chinese-medicinal-herb-for-treating-chronic-kidney-disease Science Alert—The parasitic fungus is worth more than its weight in gold: http://www.sciencealert.com/this-parasitic-fungus-is-worth-more-than-its-weight-in-gold Nature—Asian medicine: A Fungus in decline: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v482/n7383/full/482035b.html 7th International Medicinal Mushroom Conference—Steps towards Sustainable Harvest of Yartsa Gunbu (Caterpillar Fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis): http://mushroaming.com/sites/default/files/blog_images/Winkler%20Caterpillar%20fungus%20sustainability%20IMMC7%202013.pdf -- Host, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Writer Elizabeth Preston Camera, Sound Seeta Joseph Quirky Idea Music Provided by APM FOOTAGE AND IMAGES Caterpillar Fungus 2 Filmographer: Rdo rje don 'grub རྡོ་རྗེ་དོན་འགྲུབ། (Duojieduanzhi) Flickr/Koknor Koknor Cordyceps sinensis in ground Exposed 2008 and Bu Finding BarLa288 ©Daniel Winkler http://mushroaming.com Weighing Caterpillar Fungus Wikimedia Commons/Mario Biondi Soup of Silkie Seahorse and Cordyceps Wikimedia Commons/Kent Wang Mountain yak penis, fungus as Chinese medicines Wikimedia Commons/Angela Schmeidel Randall Cordyceps Sinensis Wikimedia Commons/Rafti Institute Caterpillar Fungus Store, Central Lhasa Flickr/Erik Törner Duck Tales, Alice in Wonderland, Mario Gifs Giphy SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Jawharp Boing Freesound/plingactivator Swish Unwrap Fast Freesound/goldendiaphragm RAM_Mouth Hawk_rev_v1 Freesound/Reidedo Male drinking slurping aaaaaaaaaaah small belch Freesound/Anton Tape Pulling Off Surface Freesound/Baryy MouthPop Freesound/HerbertBoland Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Are There Dead Wasps In Figs? | Gross Science
 
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Figs aren't exactly fruits...but that's not the only bizarre thing about them. Discover the gross world of figs! Subscribe to Gross Science! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ Great 1977 paper by J. Galil on Fig Biology: http://bit.ly/2bxzKwa More on the type of pollination that happens in common figs: http://bit.ly/2bxBaqc -- Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Camera, Production Help Julia Davis Illustration of Fig Cross-Section Eliza Lehner Chasing Tails Music Provided by APM Special thanks to Dr. Allen Herre GROSS FOOTAGE AND IMAGES Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2016 Fig Wasps Gregory Dimijian/Science Photo Library Ceratosolen capensis op Ficus sur, Jan Celliers Park, a Wikimedia Commons/JMK 2004-03-27-Chimpanzee-eatin Wikimedia Commons/Drrobert Great hornbill eating fig Wikimedia Commons/Lip kee Lineated Barbet- Eating Goolar fig (Ficus racemosa)-Kolkata IMG 5810 Wikimedia Commons/J.M.Garg Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) eaeting figs (17277655481) Wikimedia Commons/Bernard DUPONT LA FRUTERA (SNYDERS) Wikimedia Commons/Frans Snyders Common fig - Ficus carica - Incir 2 Wikimedia Commons/Zeynel Cebeci Mercury fig leaf Wikimedia Commons/Sputnikcccp Jerusalem Machne Yehuda Market (8118463247) Wikimedia Commons/StateofIsrael Ficus carica 1.1R Wikimedia Commons/Rob Hille GROSS SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Flying Mosquito Freesound/zywx Bubbles Popping Freesound/ch0cchi Squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Jelly Mangling On Plate Freesound/lolamadeus Gross Science is produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Why Do Deep Sea Creatures Look So Scary?
 
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Deep sea creatures like the anglerfish look terrifying. Turns out, there’s a reason for that. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ How far does light travel in the ocean? (NOAA): http://1.usa.gov/1N3rz04 In Defense of the Blobfish (Smithsonian): http://bit.ly/1N3rN7u More on sight in the deep sea (The Royal Society): http://1.usa.gov/1N3rUzW More on anglerfish (Copeia--behind paywall): http://bit.ly/1N3sbTq CORRECTION: There was a factual error relating deep sea gigantism to temperature in this video. It was in part drawn from a paper that is widely shared, but not largely accepted in today's marine biology community. Many thanks to Dr. Craig McClain for pointing it out. There is a lot we don't know about deep sea gigantism, but according to Dr. McClain, it may occur because of the lack of food in the deep sea. Larger creatures are more metabolically efficient and better at resisting starvation than smaller creatures. Accuracy is extremely important to me, and I will do my best to try to prevent an error like this from slipping in again. I have removed the relevant section at 2:11. Host, Editor, Animator Anna Rothschild Writer, Researcher, Camera Ceri Riley Chic Surreal b Music Provided by APM Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation Images and Footage File: Messina Straits Chauliodus sloani Wikimedia Commons/Professor Francesco Costa Kelp Forest and Sunlight Pond5/EthanD Marine Snow Video (What Is Marine Snow?) NOAA Melanocetus anglerfish swims and turns in black Getty/BBC Natural History Anglerfish with full stomach © Trustees of the NHM, London File: Psychrolutes phrictus Wikimedia Commons/NOAA File: Psychrolutes phrictus 1 Wikimedia Commons/NOAA/MBARI Messina Straits Argyropelecus hemigymnus Wikimedia Commons/Professor Francesco Costa Atolla wyvillei (Operation Deep Scope 2004) Wikimedia Commons/NOAA Ocean Explorer Humpback Anglerfish (Melanocetus Johnsonii) Wikimedia Commons/Javontaevious Tripod Fish at a depth of 1440mtr in Brazil Internet Archive/Filmcollective Worldwide Giant Isopod (18443864634) Wikimedia Commons/Eric Kilby from Somerville, MA, USA Japanese spider crab Wikimedia Commons/Popular Science Magazine, jun. 1920. N20090116 120650--pan Wikimedia Commons/Y23 Representatives of ceratioid families Wikimedia Commons/Masaki Miya et al. SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Scream/Woman Screams Freesound/SironBoy/MaderaDelEste Films Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Can Cocaine Make Your Ears Rot?
 
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Cocaine is being mixed with a dangerous drug called levamisole that can destroy white blood cells and kill your skin—especially your earlobes. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Larocque, A., & Hoffman, R.S. (2012) Levamisole in cocaine: Unexpected news from an old acquaintance. Clinical Tocicology, 50(4), 231-241. http://1.usa.gov/1cqDef5 The Mystery of the Tainted Cocaine by Brendon Kiley—The Stranger http://bit.ly/1cqD8nx Credits: Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound, Researcher, Intern Extraordinaire Rachel Becker Many thanks to Dr. Alexandre Larocque. Pandora’s Box Music Provided by APM Images Effects of Levamisole on Skin Photos courtesy of Henry Ford Hospital SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Swishes Freesound/pogotron Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Nature/sheep bleat outdoors Freesound/Yuval BUBBLES POPPING Freesound/Ch0cchi Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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How Dirty Are Public Restrooms?
 
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What is lurking in the bathroom? Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ If you liked this episode, check out this awesome video by AsapSCIENCE, “Should You Hover or Cover?”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFrbmYpvC4I Bacteria recolonizing the bathroom after cleaning: http://1.usa.gov/1ZGI24z Types of bacteria in different parts of the bathroom: http://bit.ly/1ZGI8Ji Bacteria on toothbrushes: http://bit.ly/1ZGHTxX Germs and hand dryers: http://bit.ly/1ZGHZWl -- Host, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Writer Elizabeth Preston DP, Sound Ceri Riley Rag Boy Music Provided by APM Many thanks to the women who put up with me filming in the restroom at WGBH—you are all wonderful and patient. And also, thank you to the random woman who filmed me drying my hands in the bathroom at the movie theater after watching The Martian. You must have thought I was insane. IMAGES AND VIDEO Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2015 Monster in Toilet Band, C. (Producer), & Band, A. (Director).(1988). Ghoulies II [Motion Picture].United States: Empire Pictures, Taryn Productions Inc. Keep Calm And Wash Your Hand CDC SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Barnacle Penises Can Teach You A Ton About Biology
 
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Well-endowed barnacles can change the size and shape of their penises. It’s a great example of something called phenotypic plasticity. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Article on phenotypic plasticity and barnacle penises: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1638/1081 Darwin on barnacles: http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F339.2&viewtype=text&pageseq=1 -- Host, Illustrator, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild DP, Sound Elizabeth Gillis Many thanks to Dr. Chris Neufeld. Rural Ragtime A Music Provided by APM Images Image of Barnacle Penis Courtesy Chris Neufeld Chthamalus stellatus Wikimedia Commons/MichaelMaggs Boat found at Westport on 1/15/14 Flickr/Department of Ecology State of Washington Charles Darwin 1880 Wikimedia Commons/Elliot & Fry SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark¬ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Slide Whistle Down 01 Freesound/joedeshon Slide Whistle Down Fast Freesound/joedeshon Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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What Your Earwax Says About You
 
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Your gross earwax can reveal a ton about who you are, where you’ve been, and how stinky you are. Subscribe to Gross Science! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ Yoshiura, K., et al. (2006). “A SNP in the ABCC11 gene is the determinant of human earwax type.” Nature Genetics, 38, 324 - 330. http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v38/n3/full/ng1733.html Prokop-Prigge, K. A., Thaler, E., Wysocki, C. J., & Preti, G. (2014). Identification of volatile organic compounds in human cerumen. Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 0, 48–52. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3987112/ Prokop-Prigge, K. A., Mansfield, C. J., Parker, M. R., Thaler, E., Grice, E. A., Wysocki, C. J., & Preti, G. (2015). ETHNIC/RACIAL AND GENETIC INFLUENCES ON CERUMEN ODOR PROFILES. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 41(1), 67–74. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-014-0533-y https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4304888/ Trumble, S. J., et al. (2013). "Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(42): 16922-16926. http://www.pnas.org/content/110/42/16922.abstract (Smithsonian.com) For Scientists, Chunks of Whale Earwax Can Be Biological Treasure Troves http://bit.ly/2mnlc6G -- Host, Writer, Animator, Editor Anna Rothschild Camera, Sound Ana Aceves Additional Voice Over Allison Eck Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017 Rolling Underground Music Provided by APM Gross Images and Footage Fig 1. from Trumble, S. J., et al. (2013). "Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(42): 16922-16926. Courtesy Dr. Sascha Usenko and Dr. Stephen J. Trumble, Baylor University Image of Prokop-Prigge, K. A., Mansfield, C. J., Parker, M. R., Thaler, E., Grice, E. A., Wysocki, C. J., & Preti, G. (2015). ETHNIC/RACIAL AND GENETIC INFLUENCES ON CERUMEN ODOR PROFILES. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 41(1), 67–74. OhrenSchmalzBrocken Wikimedia Commons/Freak1972 aka Ulf Hundeiker Dry Earwax Wikimedia Commons/Kelvinc Armpit by David Shankbone Wikimedia Commons/David Shankbone Gross SFX Wink Freesound/bennychico11 Poof of Smoke Freesound/Planman Male drinking slurping aaaaaaaaaaah small belch Freesound/Anton Running Water Bubbles 02 Freesound/kijjaz Gross Science is produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Why Do You Always Get Sick After Final Exams?
 
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Does it seem like every year you get sick the MINUTE you start your vacation? Anna explores why. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Study on the effects of sleep on health: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2629403/ Study on the effects of stress on medical students: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.322.7375&rep=rep1&type=pdf PopSci article on how sneezes travel through airplanes: http://www.popsci.com/article/science/how-sneeze-particles-travel-inside-airplane -- Host, Writer, Editor Anna Rothschild DPs Brooke Havlik and Marshall Johnson Additional Help Janet Sonenberg and Sam Christensen I Love You This Much B Music Provided by APM Original Footage ©WGBH Educational Foundation 2015 Additional Footage How Sneeze Particles Travel Inside An Airplane by ANSYS Courtesy ANSYS http://bit.ly/1OiZGIK File:Natural-Killer-Cell-Lytic-Granule-Secretion-Occurs-through-a-Pervasive-Actin-Network-at-the-Immune-pbio.1001151.2014.org (Via Wikimedia Commons) Video S1 from Rak G, Mace E, Banerjee P, Svitkina T, Orange J (2011). "Natural Killer Cell Lytic Granule Secretion Occurs through a Pervasive Actin Network at the Immune Synapse". PLOS Biology. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001151. PMID 21931536. PMC: 3172191. http://1.usa.gov/1Jpawp7 SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Wink Freesound/Bennychico11 Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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Is Fear Contagious? | Gross Science
 
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Fear may be able to spread from person to person—just like a virus. Subscribe to Gross Science! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more gross info?↓ New York Magazine: Is There An Antidote for Emotional Contagion? http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2015/04/there-an-antidote-for-emotional-contagion.html PLoS ONE: Chemosensory Cues to Conspecific Emotional Stress Activate Amygdala in Humans http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0006415 Journal of Marketing Research: What Makes Online Content Viral? http://journals.ama.org/doi/abs/10.1509/jmr.10.0353?code=amma-site Scientific American: The Secret to Online Success: What Makes Content Go Viral https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-secret-to-online-success-what-makes-content-go-viral/ Nautilus: Nothing Snowballs Online Like Fear http://nautil.us/issue/33/attraction/how-ebola-infected-twitter -- Host, Editor, Animator Anna Rothschild Researcher and Writer Seeta Joseph Additional Research and Writing Natasha Ishak and Anna Rothschild Camera, Sound Natasha Ishak Infinite Void Underscore Music Provided by APM GROSS FOOTAGE AND IMAGES Opening Montage -Psycho (1960) -The Shining (1980) -Airplane! (1980) -Troll 2 (1990) Butt Sniff Party Flickr/Craig Howell Brady L., 34 Flickr/Hairy Jacques Image of friends drinking milkshakes Friends (NBC) Ebola virus virion Wikimedia Commons/CDC/Cynthia Goldsmith Image from Ebola epidemic CDC/Umid Sharapov, M.D., M.Sc. GROSS SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Wink Freesound/Bennychico11 Bee Fly Freesound/soundmary Cough Cough Sniff Sniff Freesound/harrypeeks Slide Whistle Down Fast 01 Freesound/joedeshon Gross Science is produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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The Chemistry of Skunk Spray
 
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How do you get rid of skunk odor? Don't use tomato juice... Use chemistry! Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1FkxVLb ‖ Twitter! https://twitter.com/gross_science ‖ Tumblr! http://grossscience.tumblr.com/ ↓Want more info?↓ Recipe for De-Skunking Spray: http://users.humboldt.edu/wfwood/deodorize.shtml Chemicals in Striped Skunk Spray: http://users.humboldt.edu/wfwood/skunkspray.shtml -- Host, Producer, Editor Anna Rothschild Researcher, Writer Eliza Lehner Camera, Sound Gil Kaplan Many thanks to Drs. William F. Wood and Stanley D. Gehrt Comme Un Pigeon Music Provided by APM FOOTAGE AND IMAGES Footage of Skunk Spraying Courtesy WNET NATURE “Is That Skunk?” Stinktier, Skunks, Mephitis mephitis, Striped Skunks, Minnesota, USA, cub Shutterstock/Bildagentur Zoonar GmbH Blue Merle Australian Shepherd puppy, 10 weeks old, looking at Striped Skunk, Mephitis Mephitis, 5 years old, sitting in front of white background Shutterstock/Eric Isselee Pepe Le Pew Gif Giphy/Warner Brothers Baby skunk Wikimedia Commons/AnimalPhotos Juvenile Spotted Skunk Flickr/vladeb American hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus leauconotus) Flickr/Saguaro National Park Striped Skunk Flickr/Land Between the Lakes … Striped Skunk (cropped) Wikimedia Commons/ http://www.birdphotos.com Striped Skunk Wikimedia Commons/ http://www.birdphotos.com Washing a dog in a bath tub Wikimedia Commons/Andrew Vargas Mephitis Flickr/Jon Nelson Spotted Skunk and Cocomistle Flickr/Ryan Somma Tomato juice 316744 Wikimedia Commons/PublicDomainPictures-14 Skunk being cuddled Wikimedia Commons/Gary J. Wood PET SKUNK Wikimedia Commons/Paul M. Walsh Lapskunk Wikimedia Commons/octobop Baby Striped Skunk Flickr/Land Between the Lakes … SFX Cockroaches Freesound/StateAardvark­ (used with permission from author) Squeak Pack/squeak_10 Freesound/Corsica_S Wink Freesound/Wink Swishes Freesound/Pogotron Pencil Freesound/faston Sniff Freesound/jrssandoval Bad Beep Incorrect Freesound/richerlandtv Poof of Smoke Freesound/planman Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios
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