Easy way to recollect Anti epileptic drugs. The anti epileptic drugs Mnemonics will help students to easily remember the Drug Classification in the exams. The anti epileptic drugs all classes of drugs are summarised in few lines
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In this video , Dr Anshuman Tripathi has discussed about the Classification of AntiAnginal DRUGS in the form Simple MNEMONICS .
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In this video , I have discussed about the Classification of fluoroquinolones , mechanism of action of fluoroquinolones .
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1.what are drugs which are used for dissolving clots? 2.what are thrombolytics??3. What injections can be given to dissolve clots in coronary vessels ???Normally, blood flows through our arteries and veins smoothly and efficiently, but if a clot, or thrombus, blocks the smooth flow of blood, the result - called thrombosis - can be serious and even cause death. Diseases arising from clots in blood vessels include heart attack and stroke, among others. These disorders collectively are the most common cause of death and disability in the developed world. We now have an array of drugs that can be used to prevent and treat thrombosis - and there are more on the way - but this was not always the case. Classes of Antithrombotic Drug The most important components of a thrombus are fibrin and platelets. Fibrin is a protein that forms a mesh that traps red blood cells, while platelets, a type of blood cell, form clumps that add to the mass of the thrombus. Both fibrin and platelets stabilize the thrombus and prevent it from falling apart. Fibrin is the more important component of clots that form in veins, and platelets are the more important component of clots that form in arteries where they can cause heart attacks and strokes by blocking the flow of blood in the heart and brain, respectively, although fibrin plays an important role in arterial thrombosis as well. There are two classes of antithrombotic drugs: anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. Anticoagulants slow down clotting, thereby reducing fibrin formation and preventing clots from forming and growing. Antiplatelet agents prevent platelets from clumping and also prevent clots from forming and growing.
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What is the venous Drainage of SCALP. 2. What are the chief veins of head and neck SCALP ?? In this video , I hv discussed about the venous Drainage of SCALP .Venous Drainage of SCALP The venous drainage of the scalp can be divided into superficial and deep components. The superficial drainage follows the arteries above; the superficial temporal, occipital, posterior auricular, supraorbital and supratrochlear veins. The deep (temporal) region of the skull is drained by the pterygoid venous plexus. This is a large plexus of veins situated between the temporalis and lateral pterygoid muscles, and drains into the maxillary vein. Importantly, the veins of the scalp connect to the diploic veins of the skull via valveless emissary veins. This establishes a connection between the scalp and the dural venous sinuse
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In this video , Dr Anshuman has discussed about the Mechanism of Action of Aminoglycosides with the help of a Schematic diagram and in a simplified manner.
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Here I have discussed about SUPRAHYOID and INFRAHYOID Muscles MNEMONICS . The MNEMONIC would easily help students to easily remember these muscles, without getting confused .
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In this video, I have discussed about the Cavernous Sinus. The boundaries and Contents of Cavernous Sinus have been discussed. The structures which pass outside the Sinus , those passing through the centre, those passing through the lateral wall have been explained with the help of Schematic diagram.
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In this video , I have discussed about the Stages of Sleep Cycle, EEG waves MNEMONICS during Sleep and the differences between Non REM and REM Sleep have been discussed.
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In this video , Dr Anshuman has discussed about the Classification of Aminoglycosides , Pharmacokinetics and Uses of Aminoglycosides Antibiotics.
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In this video , I have discussed about the Classification of Local Anaesthetic Agents ,their Metabolism and how to distinguish between the Amides and Ester local anaesthetic agents .
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In this video , I have discussed about the Macrolide Antibiotics , their uses and ADVERSE EFFECTS . The Mechanism of Action of Macrolide Antibiotics have been explained as to how they bind to the 50 S subunit of bacterial ribosome and inhibit Protein Synthesis .
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1. What are medicines for oral contraception ?? 2. What is Mechanism of action of Oral contraceptives?Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medicationstaken by mouth for the purpose of birth control. FemaleEdit Two types of female oral contraceptive pill, taken once per day, are widely available: The combined oral contraceptive pillcontains estrogen and a progestinThe progestogen-only pillOrmeloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator which offers the benefit of only having to be taken once a week. Emergency contraception pills ("morning after pills") are taken at the time of intercourse, or within a few days afterwards: Levonorgestrel, sold under the brand name Plan BUlipristal acetateMifepristone and misoprostol, when used in combination, are more than 95% effective during the first 50 days of pregnancy. The combination is administered by a physician, and is only used as a last resor
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In this video , I have discussed about the MNEMONICS to easily remember the Classification of Anti hypertensive Drugs in the Alphabetical order.
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In this video , I have explained about Arterial Supply of SCALP , diagrammatically. Blood supply of SCALP The blood supply of the scalp is via five pairs of arteries, three from the external carotid and two from the internal carotid: internal carotidthe supratrochlear artery to the midline forehead. The supratrochlear artery is a branch of the ophthalmic branch of the internal carotid artery.the supraorbital artery to the lateral forehead and scalp as far up as the vertex. The supraorbital artery is a branch of the ophthalmic branch of the internal carotid artery.external carotidthe superficial temporal artery gives off frontal and parietal branches to supply much of the scalpthe occipital artery which runs posteriorly to supply much of the posterior aspect of the scalpthe posterior auricular artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, ascends behind the auricle to supply the scalp above and behind the auricle. Because the walls of the blood vessels are firmly attached to the fibrous tissue of the superficial fascial layer, cut ends of vessels here do not readily retract; even a small scalp wound may bleed profusely.
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In this video , I have tried to simplify the Mechanism of Action of Beta lactam Antibiotics by means of a Simple Flowchart.
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1. What are the drugs which act on uterus ?? 2. Which drug causes uterine motility ?? 3. What are uterine Relaxants ? 4. What are tocolytics ?? In this video , I have made simple MNEMONICS to easily remember them . mechanisms responsible for uterine contractility and relaxation. We then use this as the basis for discussing the two major uterotonins, oxytocin and prostaglandins followed by currently available (although often unlicensed) tocolytics; progesterone, magnesium, calcium channel blockers, oxytocin receptor blockers, β-adrenergic receptor agonists, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors and nitric oxide donors. In this brief review we have concentrated on the most important mechanisms of action and data obtained on human tissue.
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In this video , I have discussed about the Classification of Sulphonamide DRUGS and their Mechanism of action .
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In this video , I have illustrated about the lymphatic drainage of TONGUE with the help of schematic diagram..
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1. Here I have described about the lymphatic drainage of SCALP and Head and Neck region. 2. What are the chief lymph nodes present in the head and neck region.3 what all areas of head, face and Scalp drain into which lymph nodes ??? Lymphatic drainage. Lymphatic channels from the posterior half of the scalp drain to occipital and posterior auricular nodes. Lymphatic channels from anterior half drain to the parotid nodes.The lymph eventually reaches the submandibular and deep cervical nodes .
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1. What are medicines for mood disorders ?? 2. What are Anti Manic Drugs ?? 3. What are the side effects of Anti Manic Drugs ?? In this video , I have discussed about the Main agents and alternative drugs with ADVERSE EFFECTS of Anti Manic Drugs . A mood stabilizer is a psychiatricpharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, the borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia. Used to treat bipolar disorder, mood stabilizers suppress swings between maniaand depression. Mood-stabilizing drugs are also used in borderline personality disorderand schizoaffective disorder.
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Here I have discussed about the layers of SCALP , MNEMONICS Series, about the characteristic features of different layers of SCALP. The soft tissue envelope of the cranial vault is called the scalp. The scalp extends from the external occipital protuberance and superior nuchal lines to the supraorbital margins. The scalp consists of 5 layers (seen in the image below): the skin, connective tissue, epicranial aponeurosis, loose areolar tissue, and pericranium. The first 3 layers are bound together as a single unit. This single unit can move along the loose areolar tissue over the pericranium, which is adherent to the calvaria.Skin The skin of the scalp is thick and hair bearing and contains numerous sebaceous glands. As a result, the scalp is a common site for sebaceous cysts. Connective tissue (superficial fascia) The superficial fascia is a fibrofatty layer that connects skin to the underlying aponeurosis of the occipitofrontalis muscle and provides a passageway for nerves and blood vessels. Blood vessels are attached to this fibrous connective tissue. If the vessels are cut, this attachment prevents vasospasm, which could lead to profuse bleeding after injury. Epicranial aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica) The epicranial aponeurosis is a thin, tendinous structure that provides an insertion site for the occipitofrontalis muscle. Posterolaterally, the epicranial aponeurosis attachment extends from the superior nuchal line to the superior temporal line. Laterally, the epicranial aponeurosis continues as the temporal fascia. Anteriorly, the subaponeurotic space extends to the upper eyelids due to the lack of a bony insertion. This loose areolar tissue provides a potential subaponeurotic space that allows fluids and blood to pass from the scalp to the upper eyelids. Loose areolar tissue Areolar tissue loosely connects the epicranial aponeurosis to the pericranium and allows the superficial 3 layers of the scalp to move over the pericranium. Scalp flaps are elevated along a relatively avascular plane in craniofacial and neurosurgical procedures. However, certain emissary veins traverse this layer, which connects the scalp veins to the diploic veins and intracranial venous sinuses. Pericranium The pericranium is the periosteum of the skull bones. Along the suture lines, the pericranium becomes continuous with the endosteum. A subperiosteal hematoma, therefore, forms in the shape of the skull bones.
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In this video , I have discussed about the Classification of Anti amoebic Drugs and their Mechanism of Action .
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In this video , Dr Anshuman has discussed about the MNEMONICS to easily remember the Classification of Anti leprotic Drugs. The Multi Drug Therapy (MDT ) for LEPROSY and Mechanism of Action of Dapsone has been discussed.
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In this video , I have discussed about the MNEMONICS for Clinical Uses of Prototype drugs of both the Adrenergic and Anti Adrenergic Class .
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This video deals with Quick n easy way to memorise about Corticosteroid drugs.Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoidsand mineralocorticoids, are involved in a wide range of physiologic processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydratemetabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.Synthetic pharmaceutical drugs with corticosteroid-like effects are used in a variety of conditions, ranging from brain tumors to skin diseases. Dexamethasone and its derivatives are almost pure glucocorticoids, while prednisone and its derivatives have some mineralocorticoid action in addition to the glucocorticoid effect. Fludrocortisone(Florinef) is a synthetic mineralocorticoid. Hydrocortisone (cortisol) is typically used for replacement therapy, e.g. for adrenal insufficiency and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Medical conditions treated with systemic corticosteroids: Allergy and respirology medicineAsthma (severe exacerbations)Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)Allergic rhinitisAtopic dermatitisHivesAngioedemaAnaphylaxisFood allergiesDrug allergiesNasal polypsHypersensitivity pneumonitisSarcoidosisEosinophilic pneumoniaInterstitial lung diseaseDermatologyPemphigus vulgarisContact dermatitisEndocrinology (usually at physiologic doses)Adrenal insufficiencyCongenital adrenal hyperplasiaGastroenterologyUlcerative colitisCrohn’s diseaseAutoimmune hepatitisHematologyLymphomaLeukemiaHemolytic anemiaIdiopathic thrombocytopenic purpuraMultiple MyelomaRheumatology/ImmunologyRheumatoid arthritisSystemic lupus erythematosusPolymyalgia rheumaticaPolymyositisDermatomyositisPolyarteritisVasculitisOphthalmologyUveitisKeratoconjunctivitisOther conditionsMultiple sclerosisOrgan transplantationNephrotic syndromeChronic hepatitis (flare ups)Cerebral edemaIgG4-related diseaseProstate cancerTendinosisLichen planus Topical formulations are also available for the skin, eyes (uveitis), lungs (asthma), nose (rhinitis), and bowels. Corticosteroids are also used supportively to prevent nausea, often in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists (e.g.ondansetron). Typical undesired effects of glucocorticoids present quite uniformly as drug-induced Cushing's syndrome. Typical mineralocorticoid side-effects are hypertension (abnormally high blood pressure), hypokalemia (low potassium levels in the blood), hypernatremia (high sodium levels in the blood) without causing peripheral edema, metabolic alkalosis and connective tissue weakness. Wound healing or ulcer formation may be ibhibited by the immunosuppressive effects. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that corticosteroids can cause permanent eye damage by inducing central serous retinopathy (CSR, also known as central serous chorioretinopathy, CSC). A variety of steroid medications, from anti-allergy nasal sprays (Nasonex, Flonase) to topical skin creams, to eye drops (Tobradex), to prednisone have been implicated in the development of CSR. Corticosteroids have been widely used in treating people with traumatic brain injury. A systematic review identified 20 randomised controlled trials and included 12,303 participants, then compared patients who received corticosteroids with patients who received no treatment. The authors recommended people with traumatic head injury should not be routinely treated with corticosteroids. Use of corticosteroids has numerous side-effects, some of which may be severe: Neuropsychiatric: steroid psychosis, and anxiety, depression. Therapeutic doses may cause a feeling of artificial well-being ("steroid euphoria"). The neuropsychiatric effects are partly mediated by sensitization of the body to the actions of adrenaline. Therapeutically, the bulk of corticosteroid dose is given in the morning to mimic the body's diurnal rhythm; if given at night, the feeling of being energized will interfere with sleep. An extensive review is provided by Flores and Gumina.Cardiovascular: Corticosteroids can cause sodium retention through a direct action on the kidney, in a manner analogous to the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. This can result in fluid retention and hypertension.Metabolic: Corticosteroids cause a movement of body fat to the face and torso, resulting respectively in "moon face" and "buffalo hump". and away from the limbs. Due to the diversion of amino-acids to glucose, they are considered anti-anabolic, and long term therapy can cause muscle wastingEndocrine: By increasing the production of glucose from amino-acid breakdown and opposing the action of insulin, corticosteroids can cause hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.Skeletal: Steroid-induced osteoporosis may be a side-effect of long-term corticosteroid use. Use of inhaled corticosteroids amon
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In this video , Dr Anshuman has discussed about the "Types of White fibres of Brain " and explained in detail one of the Commissural fibres , " Corpus Callosum " it's different parts in relation to the different lobes of Brain has been explained with diagram.
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Here's a video which would help students to Quickly recollect the Classification of drugs for PEPTIC ULCER . 1. What are the drugs used in PEPTIC ULCER Disease ? 2. Classification of drugs for PEPTIC ULCER . Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus. An ulcer in the stomach is known as a gastric ulcer while that in the first part of the intestines is known as a duodenal ulcer. The most common symptoms of a duodenal ulcer are waking at night with upper abdominal pain or upper abdominal pain that improves with eating. With a gastric ulcer the pain may worsen with eating. The pain is often described as a burning or dull ache.Other symptoms include belching, vomiting, weight loss, or poor appetite. About a third of older people have no symptoms.Complications may include bleeding, perforation and blockage of the stomach.Bleeding occurs in as many as 15% of people.
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Quick review for clinical presentation, causes and Drugs for Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's disease facts Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder which leads to progressive deterioration of motor function due to loss of dopamine-producing brain cells.Primary symptoms includetremor,stiffness,slowness,impaired balance,and later on a shuffling gait.Some secondary symptoms includeanxiety,depression, anddementia.Most individuals with Parkinson's disease are diagnosed when they are 60 years old or older, but early-onset Parkinson's disease also occurs.With proper treatment, most individuals with Parkinson's disease can lead long, productive lives for many years after diagnosis. What is Parkinson's disease? Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and the most common movement disorder. It is characterized by progressive loss of muscle control, which leads to trembling of the limbs and head while at rest, stiffness, slowness, and impaired balance. As symptoms worsen, it may become difficult to walk, talk, and complete simple tasks. The progression of Parkinson's disease and the degree of impairment vary from individual to individual. Many people with Parkinson's disease live long productive lives, whereas others become disabled much more quickly. Premature death is usually due to complications such as falling-related injuries or pneumonia. Most individuals who develop Parkinson's disease are 60 years of age or older. Since overall life expectancy is rising, the number of individuals with Parkinson's disease will increase in the future
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In this video , I have discussed about the Electroencephalogram waves ( EEG waves ) which are also known as Berger waves . Different types of EEG waves along with their frequencies, their site of production in different lobes of Brain and their characteristic features have been discussed.
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1. What are Antidepressants ?? 2. what are MNEMONICS for Antidepressants Drugs ?? Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders. They may be prescribed alone or in combination with other medications.The most important classes of antidepressants are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs), tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs), and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSAs). St John's wort is also used in the treatment of depression. One theory regarding the cause of depression is that it is characterized by an overactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis) that resembles the neuro-endocrine response to stress. These HPA axis abnormalities participate in the development of depressive symptoms, and antidepressants may serve to regulate HPA axis function
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Constipation is a common complaint in older adults. Although constipation is not a physiologic consequence of normal aging, decreased mobility and other comorbid medical conditions may contribute to its increased prevalence in older adults. Functional constipation is diagnosed when no secondary causes can be identified, such as a medical condition or a medicine with a side effect profile that includes constipation. Empiric treatment may be tried initially for patients with functional constipation. Management of chronic constipation includes keeping a stool diary to record the nature of the bowel movements, counseling on bowel training, increasing fluid and dietary fiber intake, and increasing physical activity. There are a variety of over-the-counter and prescription laxatives available for the treatment of constipation. Fiber and laxatives increase stool frequency and improve symptoms of constipation. If constipation is refractory to medical treatment, further diagnostic evaluation may be warranted to assess for colonic transit time and anorectal dysfunction. Alternative treatment methods such as biofeedback and surgery may be considered for these patients
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In this , I have particularly dealt with thyroid gland's basic Anatomy and Arterial Supply of Thyroid gland. MNEMONICS to easily remember the the Site of ligature of Superior Thyroid Artery and inferior thyroid artery.
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This video discusses about the different Pharyngeal Arches . The Structures derived from the First and Second Pharyngeal Arches have been discussed in MNEMONICS form.The concept of pharyngeal Arches have been explained.
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In this video , Dr Anshuman has discussed about the " Therapeutic uses and ADVERSE EFFECTS " Of Glucocorticoid Drugs.
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1.What are the pre Anaesthetic Medication ?? 2. What are the Uses of pre Anaesthetic Medication ?? 3. What are the classes of Drugs which are used as pre Anaesthetic Medication ? In this video , I have made it easier and Simpler to remember the Classes of Drugs which are used as pre Anaesthetic Medication by simple MNEMONICS.
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